Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Essay

Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Countries - Essay Example In criminology, the Social Bonding Theory (which was earlier known as the Social Control Theory) proposes that exploiting the process socialization and social learning builds self-control and reduces the inclination to indulge in such behavior that is considered and recognized as antisocial. The Social Bond Theory proposes that "people's relationships, commitments, values, norms, and beliefs encourage them not to break the law." ("Wikipedia", 2006). The Social Bond Theory has evolved dramatically throughout the years, not only with its titled name, but through the separately distinguished proposals of different persons, and also by the way it has been accepted and understood by not only criminologists themselves, but also the world in general. The evolution of this theory is of particular importance, and the originality of it must be recognized and understood just as much as the modern day from of the theory. The Social Bond Theory is a topic of great discussion and even greater importance, in that its assistance and propositions in regards to criminology have aided the field in many ways. There are several different forms of the theory itself, which have been proposed by several persons over the years, and yet each theory's basis remains the same - to understand the ways in which it is possible to reduce the likelihood of criminality developing in individuals, which is, of course, a dramatically new stance in criminology altogether. The purpose of this paper is to review and understand the different perspectives and proposals which have been taken on the Social Bond Theory, the importance of the theory itself, and to thoroughly discuss each of the assumptions, propositions, empirical findings, and other primary key elements of the Social Bond Theory. This is what will be dissertated in the following. Literature Review: Out of the many different assumptions taken on the Social Bond Theory, there are six which are especially prominent. These six persons consist of (in chronological order): Albert J. Reiss, Jackson Toby, F. Ivan Nye, Walter Reckless, David Matza, and Travis Hirschi. The earliest form of the theory was proposed by Albert J. Reiss, who proposed that delinquency was "behavior consequent to the failure of personal and social controls." (Reiss, 1951: 196). Reiss believed that the failure to internalize socially accepted and prescribed norms of behavior, as well as the lack of social rules that prescribe behavior in the family, the school, and other important social groups; are all also evidently important in the proposal of the Social Bond Theory. Reiss also proposed that the main factor was that personal control problems stemmed from a juvenile's inability to refrain from meeting their needs in a psychiatric sense. Reiss' theory launched a series of studies into insulation and vulnerability factors affecting delinquency. Jackson Toby was another early theorist with his own separate take on the Social Bond Theory. He was the first to introduce the concept of 'stakes in conformity', which in the simplest terms dealt with how much a person has to lose when he or she breaks the law. Toby (1957)

Monday, July 22, 2019

System Evaluation Essay Example for Free

System Evaluation Essay One of the most prevalent and effective systems used within the Marine Corps is the human resources system known as Marine Online (MOL). MOL was created to track Marines annual training, allow special requests such as leave, liberty, temporary duty assignments, personal time away from duty. MOL also gives Marines the ability to track carrier progression through annual reporting and rewards that are posted. The system includes promotion tracking and allows one to calculate physical training scores such as physical fitness training scores and combat fitness-training scores. The system allows Marines to track pay and leave in incremental amounts allowing one to view pay 15 days prior to being paid. The need for the system has been ever present and before its implementation everything was stored on paper and word of mouth. The system has helped the Corps as a whole because it creates a platform for many different types of data to be stored and calculates data automatically allowing data to be requested at a moment notice. The requirements of the Marine Corps that drove the system development of MOL are many in number but the need that drove the creation of it the most was how large the organization is. The Marine Corps size can vary from 200k to 400k including reserves. Commanders needed a system that would allow them to view leave and performance reports at a moments notice. In the process of creating the system they found there were many other facets of records they could include in the system. By digitizing these records they would be viewable by every Marine. This in turn allowed the Marine Corps to save hundreds of millions of dollars because they could reduce the number of departments. The Marine Corps had the ability to centralize all of the departments and reduce the amount of paper waste along with wasted man hours. In the past Marines would have to go to several separate departments to view the same information. The original system was only created to track only two areas of information. When the Marine Corps did their assessment of the system they found it to be so helpful they asked commanders if there was anything else they could add to the system to make it easier to track Marines carrier and allow individuals the ability to do the same. Allowing the individual Marines the ability to view these reports at a moments notice has allowed the organization as a whole to appeal to a much higher standard and expectation of the Marines. An example of a new tool that has been implemented in the system MOL is in the Marine Times â€Å"Use of the new communications tool, accessible through Marine Online, or MOL, will be mandatory for nearly the entire Corps by the end of February. † (Sanborn, 2011, para. 2). The use of this new communication tool has allowed family’s to stay in contact with loved ones while deployed over seas. The new system has improved almost every facet of the organization the basic use of the Marine Online System is to allow tracking of Marines to the commanders in the Marines Corps with the simple click of a mouse. The system has grown to so much more than it was originally created for allowing the growth of the Marine Corps in many other areas. Some likely future developments of the system will be the incorporation of medical and dental records. The system will probably be updated to include service record books to allow Marines individual records to be recorded electronically. The information system will eventually grow to allow every Marine to track every portion of their carrier to include new functions that were never though possible or never thought were needed. Something that has not been incorporated into the system is a mobile aspect but in the near future there will be. â€Å"In 2011, the Department of Defense announced it was creating a special online app store for members of the military so that they could download mobile apps that had been vetted for security issues† (Turban, Volonino, Wood, 2013, p. 88). Security has always been an issue for the Department of Defense (DOD) when creating mobile portions of their information systems. This is something that has repressed their ability to expand into the mobile business as of late the security of mobile system has become ever stronger and allowed the DOD to expand its information systems. Conclusion The MOL system has transformed how the Marine Corps functions in many different ways. The IS has allowed the organization as a whole to reduce aste and streamline the data it collects to a central location. Requirements of the system have always been present within the organization until recently has not been reasonably attainable with the amount of employees within the organization. The ultimate drive of the system is unit readiness and the unit readiness is easily quantifiable within the system because the commanders within the Marine Corps have instant access to the information required to gauge it. Unit readiness is the ability to leave at a moments notice when called upon by the president or congress to deploy to a war zone. The type and basic uses of the system are some of the most essential parts of the IS. Without the basic use of this system the Marine Corps as a whole would be at a loss without the use of it. In essence the application of this system has changed the business processes of the Marine Corps as a whole.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Illiteracy in Egypt | An overview

Illiteracy in Egypt | An overview Illiteracy in Egypt Illiteracy is a huge problem, which face the developing countries and of course some of the developed countries. Who we can call an illiterate? An illiterate is a person who is unable to read or write. The rate of illiteracy is high in Egypt especially for women. The rate of illiteracy in Egypt in 2002 is approximately 34.2, while 45.4 percent is women. According to Arab Human Development Report; the illiteracy in the Arab world has reached 65 million, two thirds of them women. The illiteracy problem is caused by many things; one of the causes is poverty and another one is the lack of education of the parents. For example poverty; people want their children to learn, but can not afford enough money to make that dream come true. For the poor parents, it is a dream to make his children enter a school, because he wants his son to achieve something he could not do. This is a reason why illiteracy is high in the rural areas in Egypt. This is not only in rural areas, but also in big citie s in Cairo and the main reason for that is poverty; people cannot afford money to pay for their children school expenses, so they do not enter school and of course they become illiterate. This essay will first demonstrate the causes behind illiteracy and will try to find solutions for this problem. There are a number of causes behind the increased rate of illiteracy in Egypt, one of which is family pressure on women specifically from husbands, most of the husbands do not want their wifes to learn, specially the illiterate husbands. In the rural areas it is nearly impossible to convince the husband to attach his wife to a learning system. The husband is convinced that his wife has no need to learn. She only needs to serve her house, so what is the need of learning. Most of the girls wants to learn, but as they grow this feeling vanishes with time. Therefore in most of the cases the illiterate husband is the cause for the illiteracy of his daughter and wife. Another aspect of the problem is that husbands do not want to learn, they say why to learn, while I got my wife and my farm to look after, learning is not important. Some people at first are convinced to join educational system, but after some time they leave. Because they are bored, or they do not understand what they were taught or the more advanced group of them leaves after learning how to read and write.† To convince people of the importance of staying with classes is one of the toughest obstacles we face â€Å"(Rashed, 2002, issue no. 604). There is another problem which is the most of the people leaves after they are able to read and write, and he or she think that this is enough, but this is a problem, because if he or she did not exercise a lot he will forget what he learned and that is the ability to read and write. You can teach people how to read and write in a nine-month program, but according to a recently conducted field study by WSA, if people stop their education at that point, there is a big chance they will forget what they have been taught in a period ranging from six to 12 months (Rashed, 2002, issue no. 604). Some of the illiterate people are wealthy, they does not see a reason for learning, as they demonstrate it â€Å"what did the educated people get? This is a result of the socioeconomic problems in the country† (Abdoun, 2009, Daily News Egypt). That kind of people is nearly impossible to convince, because he thinks that he got enough money, so he think why do I need to learn? I got enough money for my self and my children. But what he does not know that his children will suffer after he dies. Because of course he prevents his children from learning. If he has a son from he make him works with him and if he has a daughter he will make her wait for marriage. In large cities like Egypt most people are poor; maybe due to the low income. People do not find money to spend on their children to learn. Nowadays in high school every student should take a lesson after school to understand the subject, because he did not understand what he was taught in school. Most of the parent can not a fford to pay for that lesson so the student fail and leaves the school. Illiteracy has many negative effects, not only on the person himself, but also for his own country; first of all, if a country has a high illiteracy rate, it will be very hard for this country to develop, because the countries develop with its people, not with itself. If people have knowledge they can do anything like gain a lot of money, invent new things, which leads to the development of their country. Second, illiteracy make people naà ¯ve easy to trick, because if you ask a question to an illiterate person and he does not know the answer, anything you say he will believe it, so he can be trick because of his illiteracy. Finally, illiterate people can not be a well known person Can an illiterate person be a president for example? Of course not, because he does not have any information to give or to convince people with. Although there are many solutions to eradicate illiteracy, not many of them work. Why is that? Because only a small group of people accept to learn, while the other leaves after a small period or after they learned basic concept, like reading and writing and those are partially illiterate. Illiteracy eradication programs have spread in Egypt to help illiterate people, but not all of it has been successful. One of these programs tries to employ young graduates and teach them, how to teach illiterate people. But the program is not that successful, why? Because of many reasons; first the graduates are young so they lack training, of course they will be trained, but they do not have the experience of an old teacher on how to teach, not only teach, but teach and deal with an illiterate person. Most of the graduated students look for money and jobs but they did not find what they desired, so they look for any kind of job to get money. After graduating, I didnt find a job. I signed up for the Century Project when I found out it paid LE150 a month.(Nafie, 2003, Issue No. 654).thus most of the graduated student look for just work, so they might not concentrate on the people they are teaching, of course they take courses on how to deal with the illiterate people, but that might not be enough. Because experience is the key to make people learn and make them have a desire in learning. I dont think any of the volunteers really believe in the cause. Most of us are doing it just because we need the money. (Nafie, 2003, Issue No. 654).as one of the volunteers mentioned, if they did not believe in the cause, will they really succeed in what they are doing? One main goal the person whose job is to eradicate the illiteracy should have, this goal is that he really wants to eradicate illiteracy, not just take it as a job. Another main problem is the eradicating programs itself. Maybe it does not suit that illiterate person himself; maybe he can not understand from the person that is teaching him, maybe the time is not suitable for him. It is not just provide the people with classes then leave them. It is providing people with classes and monitors them see what they need, are they comfortable with the way they learn, do they need anything else. The main idea is to motivate and encourage them and make them fell comfortable and make the classes and the schedules suitable for everyone. If this is achieved they will gain a lot from what they are learning. â€Å"An important area is the development of flexible programs which suit different learners needs and interests, meaning flexible schedules and convenient locations† (Abdoun, 2008, Daily News Egypt). There are other ways of eradicating illiteracy that is claimed to work; one of them is by advertising and providing lessons through television.† Utilization of the television channels and broadcasting as a teaching aid for distance education, through the introduction of literacy lessons and educational drama, thus covering all governorates at various periods to enable illiterates follow them regardless of time or place† (UNESCO Egypt report 1).This is good and a new way of learning, but the main question is does most the illiterates have television and if they have, do they have the time to watch literacy lessons on it? Of course not, because most of the illiterate parts in Egypt are concentrated in the rural areas, most of these people are concerned with their farms and work. Moreover most of these people will not want to see these programs on the television. They will say why I should waste my time on watching some program I do not even understand. The rural areas in Eg ypt do not care so much about technology some of them might still be using radios and do not even have a television or even care to have one. They are more concerned with their work, families and their own problems. To make a program like that work it needs awareness, how to know which time this program is aired and how to understand from it. Because when an illiterate person starts to learn, especially old people (people above the age of 30) they find most of the course or the program very hard to understand, so they start to fear what is coming and they ask themselves how I am going to understand the complex parts, when I can not even understand the easy part. Many ways of eradicating illiteracy had failed, because people do not have their expectations meet. This paragraph will provide few solutions, from all the information gathered about how to eradicate illiteracy. First of all, women is not like men they are easily convinced, if someone sit with them and talk and understand their problem, they might provide a solution for them.The best suited for this mission is one who is not working for money, but the one whose gladly dedicating his life to solve this problem, who believes that he or she can solve it if he or she tries. These descriptions mostly applied on female instructors; because they are enthusiastic and realistic about their work. According to one of the volunteers she said â€Å"we will make the project succeed. As long as there are a few like us, who are keen on teaching those in need, a lot of people will be able to overcome illiteracy. (Nafie, 2003, Issue No. 654).Other are men volunteer for the illiteracy eradicating program, which this essay explained some of the works for money and the others work because they did no t find a job. These kinds of people must be removed and replaced with people such as these women who do not work for money; they work to educate illiterate people. Another one of the female volunteers said â€Å"the money was not a motivational factor.†What can you do with LE150 these days anyway? she asked. Those who were doing it for the money, she said, dont deserve the job† (Nafie, 2003, Issue No. 654).Many women do not work for money, so they are the best candidates for the jobs. The question now how to convince husbands; by telling and showing him examples of literate people and demonstrate what his wife will be if she is literate, how she will understand him and her children better. That also applies for him, what he will be after he is a literate person how it will help him with his work and also make him a better person. Fighting illiteracy is not to make people learn how to read and write, it is a long way that involves convincing the illiterate women to go on with studying in the program, and convince the husbands about the essential of letting their wives continue their education. One big way of illiteracy eradicating is the family support. If the family is supportive enough the illiterate member of this family will continue to learn, not just stop by learning how to read and write and if they continue to support this illiterate member in their family he becomes a fully literate person, it means that he will have a degree. For the wealthy people who are illiterate they should understand if they make their children learn that should make things easy for him. His son will be able to take after his father job and even expand it. Because he learned in details how this job works. In the end the illiteracy eradicating process depends on the instructors and how can they convince and encourage people to learn. To sum up , illiteracy is a huge problem which is facing Egypt, but not only Egypt, the whole world is facing that problem. There are many problems which are causing illiteracy in Egypt, one of them is family pressure on women specifically from husbands, another one is the husband themselves dont want to learn and there is the rich illiterate people who do not care about learning. The effect of illiteracy is huge, a country with huge rate of illiteracy will not be developed country and illiteracy makes people naà ¯ve easy to trick. The illiterate person will be as he is until he dies without doing anything for himself or his country. There is some solutions that did not work for eradicating illiteracy, for example; people that only work for money not to eradicate illiteracy they are not dedicated to their job, so they will teach without care about the person in front of them. Also there is the television lesson for illiterate people, which illiterate people might not understand it, another thing the government provides programs for eradicating illiteracy that do not suit all the illiterate people. Finally, there are some solutions for eradicating illiteracy. For women they are easily convinced, if someone understands their thought and what they need they can easily be convinced with the idea of learning. For the husbands, they must see an example of literate husband, to convince them what they or their family will become if they become literate. The illiteracy eradicating process depends on the instructors and how can they convince and encourage people to learn. References Rashed, Dina (2002), Life choices, Al Ahram weekly Retrieved (25/12/2009) from http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2002/604/fe2.htm Abdoun, Safaa (2008), Illiteracy eradication programs struggle with the numbers, daily news Egypt Retrieved (25/12/2009) from http://www.dailystaregypt.com/printerfriendly.aspx?ArticleID=18209 Abdoun, Safaa (2009), Egypts illiteracy rate drops slightly to 26 pct, daily news Egypt Retrieved (25/12/2009) from http://www.thedailynewsegypt.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=25852 Nafie, Reem (2003), Illiteracy revisited, Al Ahram weekly Retrieved (26/12/2009) from http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2003/654/eg2.htm UNESCO (2000), country reports Retrieved (26/12/2009) from http://www.unesco.org/education/wef/countryreports/egypt/rapport_1_2.htm

Leadership and the Diversity Challenge

Leadership and the Diversity Challenge Should organisations embrace different leadership styles of individuals from background and could this be the missing link to unlocking their full potential? Summary This major paper will examine if there are any common threads in the leadership style, traits or the development of leaders from different gender or ethnic backgrounds. The purpose is to see if there are differences in the leadership styles of individuals from such diverse backgrounds, and could this be a partial explanation as to the paucity of leaders from such groups, when compared to the conventional white heterosexual male leaders found in organisations today. In North America during the 1950s and 1960s the diversity debate concentrated on the civil rights of employees from different gender and ethnic backgrounds in the work place, this culminated in the USA with the introduction in 1964 Civil Rights Act and the establishment of the Employment Opportunity Commission. However in the 1970s the focus shifted towards affirmative action and equal employment opportunities for those from diverse backgrounds, with many organisations adopting polices to raise the talent pool from those of different ethnic backgrounds and genders. In the 1980s there was then a backlash against affirmative action and diversity debate became a bottom line or competitive concern for organisations. The diversity debate has grown in importance within many organisations for various reasons, not least of which is the increased competitive pressure to attract and retrain top talent. Additionally there is also a need for organisations to develop new innovative products and s ervices in an increasingly global market place. These combined pressures have resulted in many organisations seeking to develop both diverse work forces and leaders to meet these challenges. In the literature there is strong evidence to support to suggestion that there are long-term positive effects to an organisation in adopting a positive approach to diversity issues. This paper will examine the broader diversity issues and the benefits to organisations, but will specifically focus on the issue of leadership styles, traits and the development of leaders from different backgrounds. The paper will examine the phenomenon of the glass ceiling, or as in some cases the concrete ceiling, which is often described by aspiring executives from different gender and ethnic origins. In my opinion when considering diversity issues in organisations one aspect that is often inadequately considered is the concept of leadership style, traits and the development of future leaders from different ethnic and gender backgrounds within organizations. This needs to be considered in the placed in the context of what is often considered to be a successful style of leadership, namely the white, heterosexual macho male style of leadership, which dominates many organisations. This paper will attempt to explore the link between gender and ethnic origin and the style of leadership, and will examine if there are factors, which could provide an important connection that organisations, need to focus upon in their search to become more effective. Hopefully by examining, recognising and embracing any differences in the leadership styles, organisations can identify the critical factors that need to be considered to create a better-balanced leadership profile. Maybe it is through a deepe r understanding of the various styles of leadership that organizations can achieve the desired objectives of increased diversity, creativity, innovation and enhanced performance. In transcending the diversity debate to focus upon the differences in leadership style, it may be possible to examine the traits that organisations need to develop in their leaders to broaden their talent pool and achieve their diversity objectives. The resultant effect will be to encourage organisations to re-examine a number of aspects of their evaluation process and may create a framework to allow new leaders from different backgrounds to emerge, allowing them to break through the glass ceiling that exists in many organisations. I will conclude my major paper by focusing on major themes highlighting the key academic learning points. I will provide advice on the future implications for the diversity challenge within organisations and highlight further avenues of research. I will finish by providing a personal reflection on my major paper and its content. The paper has five major sections and in the next section I will provide a summary of each chapter, which supports the structure of my paper. Chapter One Objectives and Structure In the following section I will emphasise the objectives and structure of the paper, including a diagram, which shows the relationship between the chapters. 1.1 Objectives The paper will focus on why it is important for organisations to accept, understand and take advantage of different leadership styles, which maybe found in individuals from different ethnic and gender backgrounds. To challenge the traditional white male heterosexual heroic style of leadership, which many organisations continue to accept, encourage and develop. It is only by challenging these leadership concepts will organisations achieve their often-stated diversity objectives and create truly successful and innovative organisations. Compared to the traditional white heterosexual male leadership found in most organizations, there is clearly a noticeable lack of leaders coming from diverse gender and ethnic backgrounds. This paper will examine the connection between the ethnic origin and gender of leaders and the scarcity in the workplace. The aim is to explore if there are common aspects preventing greater diversity of leadership in organisations. In building a more balanced senior leadership team it will be critical for organisations to recognise that individuals have different backgrounds, cultures, styles of leadership, levels of creativity and approaches to problem solving. By clearly understanding that leaders will see the same issues through different lenses then organisations will capture the full potential of their leaders and also their workforce. It is however important to recognise that organisations need adaptive styles of leadership to deal with various contexts and also that certain styles of leader ship may be required in certain the circumstances. However if organisations only make use of the typical leadership styles found in the traditional white male leader, then it will be increasingly unlikely that they will be able to operate and in the global context in which many organisations now operate. The focus of the paper will be on common patterns of leadership style, traits and the development of leaders from different ethnic and gender backgrounds. The aim will be to determine if these common factors could provide a clue, as to why there has been limited success within organizations of individuals from different gender or ethnic backgrounds in obtaining senior positions. In additionally these common features may also exist in many white male employees who are currently overlooked for leadership roles. If there is a common link between gender and ethnic leadership styles, then it may be possible to enhance and develop diverse leaders within organisations, allowing those from different backgrounds to break through the glass ceiling. This would be beneficial both to the individuals and the organisation, but also to the wider social cohesion of society. To aid the discussion in the introduction chapter we will first examine some of the more traditional aspects contained in the literature as it relates various gender and ethnic backgrounds in the realm of leadership and management, particularly Hispanic, Afro American and Asian leadership styles, examining the diversity issues commonly found in these groups, looking at both the positive and the negative aspects of each ethnic classes traditions and values as applied in the workplace and the role of leadership. This discussion will focus on the varying leadership styles employed by and unique to each of the ethnic classes, as well as qualities and how they developed into leaders. The introduction will also touch on the concepts of â€Å"glass ceiling† and â€Å"concrete ceiling†, reflecting on the roles of women in the arena of leadership within organisations. However this particular aspect will be coved in more depth in later chapters in the paper. 1.2 Structure of my major paper Below I will provide a top-level summary of each of my five chapters. This will afford the reader both information and an understanding of the outline combined with the content of each chapter. Figure 1.1 on the following page shows the relationship between the chapters and highlights specifically the links between each of the chapters. Figure 1.1 relationship and links between chapters Chapter Two Introduction In chapter two I will provide an introduction to my major paper and a brief outline of the diversity challenge that faces many organisations. We will examine the historical context, the social and economic perspective and why these issues are of critical importance to both to individuals and organisations. This will set the context as to why diversity issues are often discussed within many organisations. It will also set the stage to explore why a deeper understanding of the issues involved with the diversity of leaders in organisations and why the need to build a balanced leadership team is important part of the debate on diversity which organisations need to consider. Chapter Three Literature Review In chapter three I will focus on the literature review of the major issues discussed in the academic literature on the areas of focus for this paper. The first part of the review will discuss how the context in which organisations have developed policies and practices to enhance the development of individuals of different ethnic and gender backgrounds, placing this in a historical context of changing competitive landscapes for organisations and the political background to addressing the issues of diversity. The second part of the review will focus upon the academic literature concerning the evidence of the benefits for organisations in pursuing a diversity strategy for their work force and leadership team. The third part of the review will focus upon the academic literature on the current thinking as it relates to models of leadership styles and traits and development of leaders found in organisations. The fourth part of the review will focus upon the academic literature as it relates to the leadership styles, traits and development of women leaders in organisations. Examining the glass or in some cases the concrete ceiling as it relates to women and also individuals from non-white ethnic backgrounds leaders in organisations. Chapter four – Towards a unifying model Chapter five- Conclusion The final chapter draws a conclusion based on the key themes and highlights the key academic learning points from my major paper. I will provide advice for future implications of policies that originations may wish to pursue in meeting the diversity challenge and will discuss the limitations of my research and highlight areas that were potential challenges. I will articulate areas of research that I would explore further if I were to continue this study and lastly, in keeping with the spirit of the IMPM, I will provide a personal reflection on my major paper and its content. Chapter Two Introduction The focus of the major paper will be to explore if there are common threads to the diversity debate as it relates to leadership styles and see if there are sufficient commonalities so that we can bring these together under a unified model which helps us better understand the challenges faced by individuals from different ethnic and gender backgrounds in the work place as they strive to develop their full potential. This will I hope deepen our understanding and may also lead to certain practices and learning’s, which could help organisations, develop their talent pool in a more effective manner in the future. Leadership is one of the most important and elusive concepts to understand in management thinking today. While it is extremely difficult to pinpoint a specific definition of leadership, there does however appear to be researchers have identified certain characteristics. But why should organisations be concerned about leadership? One of the principle reasons cited is the importance of leadership in the success of an organization, it has been said that leaders are created by the needs of people relative to particular social conditions (Kershaw, 2001). Kershaw goes on to illustrate this point: As conditions change certain individuals are thrust into leadership roles. When physical strength is highly valued then the leaders will be perceived as, and at times must prove that they are, the strongest. When closeness to God is seen as major criteria for leadership, the successful leaders will be perceived as being closer to God than the masses (i.e. feudal monarchs and clergy during the European middle ages). (2001) However in the current age of globalization, an additional consideration that organizations need to consider is the widening need for diversity in their leadership. This will enable organizations to cope with the twin aspect of an ever-changing standards demanded by the global market place and consumers from an assorted variety of ethnic groups and because organisations, are also beginning to recognize the importance of having a widely diverse workforce and leadership teams to deal with the increased pressures they face today in the global market place for talent. According to Combs, finding ways to maximize benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce and client base is a continuing concern for organizational leadership (2002). While policies promoting diversity are an integral part of many organisations today, they are still not enough to effectively guarantee positive results in the existing organizational environments. This is especially pertinent as it relates to senior management within many organist ions. Diversity training is used to bring about behavioural change in organizations, however the model often made use of is the traditional white male role model in both the development of their leaders and also their workforce. Many organisations have failed to make use of their diversity training to bring about a new focus in order to improve the ethnic and gender mix and this is especially acute as it relates to the senior leadership teams. This paper will focus on the type of leadership conduct, philosophy, and set of values that are required for an organization, that is set in a global community, to cope against the rigors presented by an ever-changing set of standards presented by the demands of globalization. In this introductory section we will give a brief overview and attempt to address the issue by discussing and applying one of the numerous leadership approaches popularized in the literature (e.g., Charismatic, Humanistic and Fulfilment approaches to leadership) (Avolio Bass, 1988; Bass, 1990; Casimir, 2001). In order to make the connection between differing leadership styles characteristics and their effectiveness in the field of leadership within various ethnic groups, we will examine the various kinds of approaches adopted or admired within various ethnic groups as it relates to leaders within these communities. These are be introduced below: African American Leadership: Charismatic approach One of the more pronounced characteristics of African-Americans is their uncanny ability to incite sentiments and emotions. They are adept in what could be labelled as a â€Å"Charismatic† style of leadership, which is not only apparent in the work place but also in their other aspects of community life. This is not entirely surprising as the core values of the traditional Africa-American community makes true when assessing a leader is that all leaders must be bold, innovative, committed and able to motivate the masses. They must, if they wish to remain in leadership positions, have their finger on the pulse of the people they represent or be able to determine what that pulse is (Kershaw, 2001). A critical aspect of a charismatic leadership is that they must not ever lose the focus from the masses and shift interest to the individual. If this occurs then the leaders authority will become easily dispersed and he/she will lose their authority, since the leaders main hold centres on how they move the various constituent groups in an organisation as a whole. With the African-American charismatic leaders they often find it necessary to move its constituents into cooperative action, and this aspect, which is often identified as a factor, which determines a good leader as perceived by the eye of the community. It is also necessary to create a strong a supportive organization with the leaders role serving as a medium to turn plans into reality. One of the foremost requirement in charismatic leadership, is to tap into the forces contained within organisation, and while it may appear at times to be very cumbersome, at times it does however not negates the importance of charismatic leadership (Kershaw, 2001). Charismatic leaders within the African-American communities are very useful especially when there is a need move against a more powerful adversary arises, such as a discriminating upper management, for instance. However a charismatic leader, in its most successful form can serve as catalyst by acting as a unifying force. Hispanic Leadership: Humanistic approach Hispanic form of leadership emphasizes the importance of human relations in order to achieve the most favourable results from the whole organisation. Bordas (2001) in his article details Latino leadership as having three dynamics, all of these are said to characterize the idea of the humanistic approach to leadership: Firstly a leader should have Personalismo, which pertains to the actual effort, made by the leader to earn the trust and respect of followers. Secondly a leader should develop Tejando Lazos (which translates to ‘weaving connections’) this really refers to the traditional Hispanic leaders as storytellers (weavers), keepers of cultural memory, to be the dream weavers (creating tapestries of traditions past). Thirdly a leader should act as community scholars with emphasis being the placed upon developing an understanding of the social climate—how it changes rapidly—and by encouraging collective action, very much akin to their African-American cou nterparts. Bordas develops this further dividing these concepts into sub-divisions derived from the three dynamics listed above and attempts to develop a uniquely Hispanic model of leadership that can be clearly identified (Bordas, 2001). The sub divisions that Bordas created are set out below In the Hispanic Community â€Å"Culture is Central† – as an ethnic group they are bound by the Spanish language, colonization, the Catholic Church and the common values stemming from their Spanish heritage / indigenous roots. This cultural aspect has to be tapped into by a leader as a common ground from which to operate from for a Hispanic leader as they relate with their constituents. As in many cultures the Hispanic community places a high emphasis on â€Å"Trust† and it is seen as one of the most important value and is integral to the success of Latino leadership. Being trustworthy in general, Hispanic Leaders are known to be people-and relationships-centered, always certain that the leaders are very capable and dependable. Loyalty is highly valued in a traditional Hispanic setting and they take the concept of trust very seriously with their followers often confiding in their leaders, and perhaps, vice-versa. Within the Hispanic Community â€Å"Respect† – is seen as one of the foremost characteristic, which should be noticeable in a leader. This type of respect is usually found in a person who is older, possesses knowledge, or is in a position of authority. The Hispanic concept of â€Å"well-respected† covers both the professional and personal aspects of the leader. They show great respect towards people who exercise a degree of power, people of professions such as priests, doctors, teachers, while on a personal level they place considerable importance on a person’s lifestyle, their manners, their moral values, and there generosity. A Hispanic leader should have the skill of â€Å"Congeniality†: Being able to maintain smooth pleasant social relationships with people within the community. This is seen as extremely important and a premium is placed on social manners, being polite, respectful, and courteous and an ability to make small talk, taking personal interest in people. To be a successful leader in the Hispanics community they look for individuals that can develop relationships down to the very personal level. Taoist Leadership (Chinese) – Fulfilment approach It has now become fashionable for many western leaders to adopt the Taoist philosophy of leadership. This is often referred to or described as the path to both professional and personal fulfilment (Johnson, 2002), it is purported to create more cooperative, flexible, and creative leaders. Johnson claims that Taoist leadership qualities are highly desirable for a decentralized, rapidly changing work environment. A leader, which is following this approach, is said to experience a sense of equilibrium in the midst of the chaos, which is commonplace in many western organisations, it is best expounded in the following excerpt: The more you embody these [Taoist] teachings, the more the scattered parts of your life fall into place and become a seamless whole; work seems effortless; your heart opens by itself to all the people in your life; you have time for everything worthwhile; your mind becomes empty, transparent, serene; you embrace sorrow as much as joy, failure as much as success; you unthinkingly act with integrity and compassion; and you find that you have come to trust life completely. (Autry Mitchell, 1998, p. xviii) The Taoist leadership approach to leadership, places a great deal emphasis on the inner calm and balance, which should be maintained by creating a low profile, and leading mostly by example and allowing followers to take ownership (Johnson, 2002). With the select examples illustrated above namely that of Afro-American, Hispanic and Taoist leadership it obvious that there is a whole range of core values and skills to choose from in order to create a leader who can be borne out of diversity. It will be important to equip such a leaders in organisations today with the training and skills to adapt to the ever-changing contexts in which organisations now operate. But diversity itself is not only confined to ethnic classes, it also includes in its definition the member of the other gender, the female. Women in the Leadership Arena – The Glass Ceiling There is such a phenomena known as the â€Å"glass ceiling†. The glass ceiling is, according to Chaffins, Fuqua Jr., Forbes and Cangemi (2002) a term coined in the early 1980s to describe the invisible barrier with which women came in contact when working up the corporate ladder. This form of discrimination has been depicted as a barrier so subtle that it is transparent, yet so strong that it prevents women and minorities from moving up in the management hierarchy Sexual discrimination often keeps most women out of senior managerial positions; this creates the stereotypical image in the general psyche of society that men are more stable than women in terms of intellect, emotion, and in terms of achievement with the resultant effect that men are also seen as being more assertive than females. This creates a major obstacle for women who aspire to achieve a senior managerial position are the presence of these stereotypical constraints imposed upon them by society, the family, and women themselves (Crampton, 2002). In order to overcome these obstacles, women (who have successfully climbed the management ladder) have found it a necessity to acquire the courage, the skills, and willpower in order to overcome the male-established norms and environmental climate. While policy making and also placement is largely in the hands of males (Crampton, 2002), there are still recommended tactics for women to develop in order to survive the rigors of the male-dominated workplace. It is by capturing of all the aforementioned traits and skills found in minority groups in many organisations and by making use of the rich cache of resources and qualities to compliment the traditional ‘successful’ white male leader that will make organisations better equipped to deal with the world today. It will be essential to adopt an approach, which includes many facets from different leadership styles from those of different ethnic and gender backgrounds rather than relying on the traditional narrow focus organisations currently utilised by organisations. It will then be possible for organizations to continue to thrive in an increasingly competitive space for talented individuals. Chapter Three Literature Review In this chapter I will focus on four key sections. Firstly, I will explore the historical and social context of the development of diversity in organisations. Secondly, we will attempt to examine the rationale for the organisation wanting to have a diverse work force and leadership. Thirdly we will look at the various leadership models contained in the literature and fourthly review the issues that are specific to leaders from different ethnic and gender backgrounds in their struggle to raise their profile and attain senior leadership positions. Table 3.1 highlights the key themes within the literature and the main points that are discussed in each section. 3.1 Historical and Social context The early years The 1960s Civil Rights to work place The 1970s Affirmative action The 1980s Backlash The 1990s Bottom line 3.2 Rationale for diverse organisations Economic rationale Social rationale Business case Benefits to a diverse workforce and leadership for organisations 3.3 Leadership models Traits model of leadership Behavioural model of leadership Situational model of leadership Transactional vs. transformational leadership discussion 3.4 Diversity issues in leadership Leadership styles of women The glass ceiling Racial dynamics in leadership Organisational culture Table 3.1 Key themes within the literature 3.1 The Historical and Social Context In this section I will focus on the evolution of leadership diversification in work environments from the early years up to the most recent time. This section discusses the various changes that standard norms have undergone in relation to labor and management. The changes that are cited in this section mainly evolve around the beginning of the participation of women and ethnical minorities in the work force, role of women in organizational management and other issues related to a diverse labor management. Diversity in the workplace and the management has long been an issue debated among work organizations. In the United States, for instance, race has been a profound determinant of one’s political rights, one’s locations in the labor market, one’s access to medical care and even one’s sense of identity. Most importantly, race is one of the major bases of domination in its society and a major means through which the division of labor occurs in organisations (Nkomo, 1992, p. 488, drawing on the work of Omi and Winant, 1986; Reich, 1981). Gender is also a basis for stratification in organizations and work (Tang and Smith, 1996). In some research studies, it has been observed that the impact of race on organizations is somewhat more profound than gender, at least in the case of white women. Researchers believed that this may be because the social distance between White women and men is less than that of White men and ethnic or racial minorities. The racial separation evident in housing, education and church affiliation limits the opportunities for minorities to develop non-work social ties with White men (Massey Denton, 1993; Wilson, 1996). The degree of separation between White men and women is lesser. Hence, White women seem likely to have greater opportunity for non-work social ties and the work related benefits one may derive from such ties. As an overview, about 37.3% of adult women in 1960 were in the workplace while 83.3% are adult males. By 1987, the number of working males has decreased to 78% (Schor, 1991). In 1990, the percentage of working women had increased by 45%. At this time, approximately one-half of all black workers, 45% of all white workers, and 40% of all Hispanic workers were women. In the U.S. statistics report, an average 16-year-old male can expect 39 years of working in the labor force, while a typical female of the same age, can expect 30 years of labor force involvement (U.S. Department of Labor, 1990). 3.1.1 The early years Before cultural diversity has been willingly integrated by various organisations, the early years had witnessed this concept shunned by other business management. In fact, in a published work of Peter Drucker (1968), he did not even mention dealing with cultural diversity in his seminal work. He addressed the topic of the manager of tomorrow and stressed that American managers, more than ever, would have to be of impeccable personal integrity and would have to shoulder the social responsibility of keeping the opportunity open to rise from the bottom according to ability and performance. Implicitly, Drucker advised managers to disregard cultural background and instead focus on individual qualities. While this message remain relevant, it lack any global appeal and fails to recognize that there might be special management challenges in an increasingly multi-cultural business environment. In the early times, men and women received different signals about what was expected of them. To summarize a subject that many experts have explored in depth, women have been expected to be wives, mothers, community volunteers, teachers and nurses. In all these roles, they are supposed to be cooperative, supportive, understanding, gentle and service-providers to others. They are to Leadership and the Diversity Challenge Leadership and the Diversity Challenge Should organisations embrace different leadership styles of individuals from background and could this be the missing link to unlocking their full potential? Summary This major paper will examine if there are any common threads in the leadership style, traits or the development of leaders from different gender or ethnic backgrounds. The purpose is to see if there are differences in the leadership styles of individuals from such diverse backgrounds, and could this be a partial explanation as to the paucity of leaders from such groups, when compared to the conventional white heterosexual male leaders found in organisations today. In North America during the 1950s and 1960s the diversity debate concentrated on the civil rights of employees from different gender and ethnic backgrounds in the work place, this culminated in the USA with the introduction in 1964 Civil Rights Act and the establishment of the Employment Opportunity Commission. However in the 1970s the focus shifted towards affirmative action and equal employment opportunities for those from diverse backgrounds, with many organisations adopting polices to raise the talent pool from those of different ethnic backgrounds and genders. In the 1980s there was then a backlash against affirmative action and diversity debate became a bottom line or competitive concern for organisations. The diversity debate has grown in importance within many organisations for various reasons, not least of which is the increased competitive pressure to attract and retrain top talent. Additionally there is also a need for organisations to develop new innovative products and s ervices in an increasingly global market place. These combined pressures have resulted in many organisations seeking to develop both diverse work forces and leaders to meet these challenges. In the literature there is strong evidence to support to suggestion that there are long-term positive effects to an organisation in adopting a positive approach to diversity issues. This paper will examine the broader diversity issues and the benefits to organisations, but will specifically focus on the issue of leadership styles, traits and the development of leaders from different backgrounds. The paper will examine the phenomenon of the glass ceiling, or as in some cases the concrete ceiling, which is often described by aspiring executives from different gender and ethnic origins. In my opinion when considering diversity issues in organisations one aspect that is often inadequately considered is the concept of leadership style, traits and the development of future leaders from different ethnic and gender backgrounds within organizations. This needs to be considered in the placed in the context of what is often considered to be a successful style of leadership, namely the white, heterosexual macho male style of leadership, which dominates many organisations. This paper will attempt to explore the link between gender and ethnic origin and the style of leadership, and will examine if there are factors, which could provide an important connection that organisations, need to focus upon in their search to become more effective. Hopefully by examining, recognising and embracing any differences in the leadership styles, organisations can identify the critical factors that need to be considered to create a better-balanced leadership profile. Maybe it is through a deepe r understanding of the various styles of leadership that organizations can achieve the desired objectives of increased diversity, creativity, innovation and enhanced performance. In transcending the diversity debate to focus upon the differences in leadership style, it may be possible to examine the traits that organisations need to develop in their leaders to broaden their talent pool and achieve their diversity objectives. The resultant effect will be to encourage organisations to re-examine a number of aspects of their evaluation process and may create a framework to allow new leaders from different backgrounds to emerge, allowing them to break through the glass ceiling that exists in many organisations. I will conclude my major paper by focusing on major themes highlighting the key academic learning points. I will provide advice on the future implications for the diversity challenge within organisations and highlight further avenues of research. I will finish by providing a personal reflection on my major paper and its content. The paper has five major sections and in the next section I will provide a summary of each chapter, which supports the structure of my paper. Chapter One Objectives and Structure In the following section I will emphasise the objectives and structure of the paper, including a diagram, which shows the relationship between the chapters. 1.1 Objectives The paper will focus on why it is important for organisations to accept, understand and take advantage of different leadership styles, which maybe found in individuals from different ethnic and gender backgrounds. To challenge the traditional white male heterosexual heroic style of leadership, which many organisations continue to accept, encourage and develop. It is only by challenging these leadership concepts will organisations achieve their often-stated diversity objectives and create truly successful and innovative organisations. Compared to the traditional white heterosexual male leadership found in most organizations, there is clearly a noticeable lack of leaders coming from diverse gender and ethnic backgrounds. This paper will examine the connection between the ethnic origin and gender of leaders and the scarcity in the workplace. The aim is to explore if there are common aspects preventing greater diversity of leadership in organisations. In building a more balanced senior leadership team it will be critical for organisations to recognise that individuals have different backgrounds, cultures, styles of leadership, levels of creativity and approaches to problem solving. By clearly understanding that leaders will see the same issues through different lenses then organisations will capture the full potential of their leaders and also their workforce. It is however important to recognise that organisations need adaptive styles of leadership to deal with various contexts and also that certain styles of leader ship may be required in certain the circumstances. However if organisations only make use of the typical leadership styles found in the traditional white male leader, then it will be increasingly unlikely that they will be able to operate and in the global context in which many organisations now operate. The focus of the paper will be on common patterns of leadership style, traits and the development of leaders from different ethnic and gender backgrounds. The aim will be to determine if these common factors could provide a clue, as to why there has been limited success within organizations of individuals from different gender or ethnic backgrounds in obtaining senior positions. In additionally these common features may also exist in many white male employees who are currently overlooked for leadership roles. If there is a common link between gender and ethnic leadership styles, then it may be possible to enhance and develop diverse leaders within organisations, allowing those from different backgrounds to break through the glass ceiling. This would be beneficial both to the individuals and the organisation, but also to the wider social cohesion of society. To aid the discussion in the introduction chapter we will first examine some of the more traditional aspects contained in the literature as it relates various gender and ethnic backgrounds in the realm of leadership and management, particularly Hispanic, Afro American and Asian leadership styles, examining the diversity issues commonly found in these groups, looking at both the positive and the negative aspects of each ethnic classes traditions and values as applied in the workplace and the role of leadership. This discussion will focus on the varying leadership styles employed by and unique to each of the ethnic classes, as well as qualities and how they developed into leaders. The introduction will also touch on the concepts of â€Å"glass ceiling† and â€Å"concrete ceiling†, reflecting on the roles of women in the arena of leadership within organisations. However this particular aspect will be coved in more depth in later chapters in the paper. 1.2 Structure of my major paper Below I will provide a top-level summary of each of my five chapters. This will afford the reader both information and an understanding of the outline combined with the content of each chapter. Figure 1.1 on the following page shows the relationship between the chapters and highlights specifically the links between each of the chapters. Figure 1.1 relationship and links between chapters Chapter Two Introduction In chapter two I will provide an introduction to my major paper and a brief outline of the diversity challenge that faces many organisations. We will examine the historical context, the social and economic perspective and why these issues are of critical importance to both to individuals and organisations. This will set the context as to why diversity issues are often discussed within many organisations. It will also set the stage to explore why a deeper understanding of the issues involved with the diversity of leaders in organisations and why the need to build a balanced leadership team is important part of the debate on diversity which organisations need to consider. Chapter Three Literature Review In chapter three I will focus on the literature review of the major issues discussed in the academic literature on the areas of focus for this paper. The first part of the review will discuss how the context in which organisations have developed policies and practices to enhance the development of individuals of different ethnic and gender backgrounds, placing this in a historical context of changing competitive landscapes for organisations and the political background to addressing the issues of diversity. The second part of the review will focus upon the academic literature concerning the evidence of the benefits for organisations in pursuing a diversity strategy for their work force and leadership team. The third part of the review will focus upon the academic literature on the current thinking as it relates to models of leadership styles and traits and development of leaders found in organisations. The fourth part of the review will focus upon the academic literature as it relates to the leadership styles, traits and development of women leaders in organisations. Examining the glass or in some cases the concrete ceiling as it relates to women and also individuals from non-white ethnic backgrounds leaders in organisations. Chapter four – Towards a unifying model Chapter five- Conclusion The final chapter draws a conclusion based on the key themes and highlights the key academic learning points from my major paper. I will provide advice for future implications of policies that originations may wish to pursue in meeting the diversity challenge and will discuss the limitations of my research and highlight areas that were potential challenges. I will articulate areas of research that I would explore further if I were to continue this study and lastly, in keeping with the spirit of the IMPM, I will provide a personal reflection on my major paper and its content. Chapter Two Introduction The focus of the major paper will be to explore if there are common threads to the diversity debate as it relates to leadership styles and see if there are sufficient commonalities so that we can bring these together under a unified model which helps us better understand the challenges faced by individuals from different ethnic and gender backgrounds in the work place as they strive to develop their full potential. This will I hope deepen our understanding and may also lead to certain practices and learning’s, which could help organisations, develop their talent pool in a more effective manner in the future. Leadership is one of the most important and elusive concepts to understand in management thinking today. While it is extremely difficult to pinpoint a specific definition of leadership, there does however appear to be researchers have identified certain characteristics. But why should organisations be concerned about leadership? One of the principle reasons cited is the importance of leadership in the success of an organization, it has been said that leaders are created by the needs of people relative to particular social conditions (Kershaw, 2001). Kershaw goes on to illustrate this point: As conditions change certain individuals are thrust into leadership roles. When physical strength is highly valued then the leaders will be perceived as, and at times must prove that they are, the strongest. When closeness to God is seen as major criteria for leadership, the successful leaders will be perceived as being closer to God than the masses (i.e. feudal monarchs and clergy during the European middle ages). (2001) However in the current age of globalization, an additional consideration that organizations need to consider is the widening need for diversity in their leadership. This will enable organizations to cope with the twin aspect of an ever-changing standards demanded by the global market place and consumers from an assorted variety of ethnic groups and because organisations, are also beginning to recognize the importance of having a widely diverse workforce and leadership teams to deal with the increased pressures they face today in the global market place for talent. According to Combs, finding ways to maximize benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce and client base is a continuing concern for organizational leadership (2002). While policies promoting diversity are an integral part of many organisations today, they are still not enough to effectively guarantee positive results in the existing organizational environments. This is especially pertinent as it relates to senior management within many organist ions. Diversity training is used to bring about behavioural change in organizations, however the model often made use of is the traditional white male role model in both the development of their leaders and also their workforce. Many organisations have failed to make use of their diversity training to bring about a new focus in order to improve the ethnic and gender mix and this is especially acute as it relates to the senior leadership teams. This paper will focus on the type of leadership conduct, philosophy, and set of values that are required for an organization, that is set in a global community, to cope against the rigors presented by an ever-changing set of standards presented by the demands of globalization. In this introductory section we will give a brief overview and attempt to address the issue by discussing and applying one of the numerous leadership approaches popularized in the literature (e.g., Charismatic, Humanistic and Fulfilment approaches to leadership) (Avolio Bass, 1988; Bass, 1990; Casimir, 2001). In order to make the connection between differing leadership styles characteristics and their effectiveness in the field of leadership within various ethnic groups, we will examine the various kinds of approaches adopted or admired within various ethnic groups as it relates to leaders within these communities. These are be introduced below: African American Leadership: Charismatic approach One of the more pronounced characteristics of African-Americans is their uncanny ability to incite sentiments and emotions. They are adept in what could be labelled as a â€Å"Charismatic† style of leadership, which is not only apparent in the work place but also in their other aspects of community life. This is not entirely surprising as the core values of the traditional Africa-American community makes true when assessing a leader is that all leaders must be bold, innovative, committed and able to motivate the masses. They must, if they wish to remain in leadership positions, have their finger on the pulse of the people they represent or be able to determine what that pulse is (Kershaw, 2001). A critical aspect of a charismatic leadership is that they must not ever lose the focus from the masses and shift interest to the individual. If this occurs then the leaders authority will become easily dispersed and he/she will lose their authority, since the leaders main hold centres on how they move the various constituent groups in an organisation as a whole. With the African-American charismatic leaders they often find it necessary to move its constituents into cooperative action, and this aspect, which is often identified as a factor, which determines a good leader as perceived by the eye of the community. It is also necessary to create a strong a supportive organization with the leaders role serving as a medium to turn plans into reality. One of the foremost requirement in charismatic leadership, is to tap into the forces contained within organisation, and while it may appear at times to be very cumbersome, at times it does however not negates the importance of charismatic leadership (Kershaw, 2001). Charismatic leaders within the African-American communities are very useful especially when there is a need move against a more powerful adversary arises, such as a discriminating upper management, for instance. However a charismatic leader, in its most successful form can serve as catalyst by acting as a unifying force. Hispanic Leadership: Humanistic approach Hispanic form of leadership emphasizes the importance of human relations in order to achieve the most favourable results from the whole organisation. Bordas (2001) in his article details Latino leadership as having three dynamics, all of these are said to characterize the idea of the humanistic approach to leadership: Firstly a leader should have Personalismo, which pertains to the actual effort, made by the leader to earn the trust and respect of followers. Secondly a leader should develop Tejando Lazos (which translates to ‘weaving connections’) this really refers to the traditional Hispanic leaders as storytellers (weavers), keepers of cultural memory, to be the dream weavers (creating tapestries of traditions past). Thirdly a leader should act as community scholars with emphasis being the placed upon developing an understanding of the social climate—how it changes rapidly—and by encouraging collective action, very much akin to their African-American cou nterparts. Bordas develops this further dividing these concepts into sub-divisions derived from the three dynamics listed above and attempts to develop a uniquely Hispanic model of leadership that can be clearly identified (Bordas, 2001). The sub divisions that Bordas created are set out below In the Hispanic Community â€Å"Culture is Central† – as an ethnic group they are bound by the Spanish language, colonization, the Catholic Church and the common values stemming from their Spanish heritage / indigenous roots. This cultural aspect has to be tapped into by a leader as a common ground from which to operate from for a Hispanic leader as they relate with their constituents. As in many cultures the Hispanic community places a high emphasis on â€Å"Trust† and it is seen as one of the most important value and is integral to the success of Latino leadership. Being trustworthy in general, Hispanic Leaders are known to be people-and relationships-centered, always certain that the leaders are very capable and dependable. Loyalty is highly valued in a traditional Hispanic setting and they take the concept of trust very seriously with their followers often confiding in their leaders, and perhaps, vice-versa. Within the Hispanic Community â€Å"Respect† – is seen as one of the foremost characteristic, which should be noticeable in a leader. This type of respect is usually found in a person who is older, possesses knowledge, or is in a position of authority. The Hispanic concept of â€Å"well-respected† covers both the professional and personal aspects of the leader. They show great respect towards people who exercise a degree of power, people of professions such as priests, doctors, teachers, while on a personal level they place considerable importance on a person’s lifestyle, their manners, their moral values, and there generosity. A Hispanic leader should have the skill of â€Å"Congeniality†: Being able to maintain smooth pleasant social relationships with people within the community. This is seen as extremely important and a premium is placed on social manners, being polite, respectful, and courteous and an ability to make small talk, taking personal interest in people. To be a successful leader in the Hispanics community they look for individuals that can develop relationships down to the very personal level. Taoist Leadership (Chinese) – Fulfilment approach It has now become fashionable for many western leaders to adopt the Taoist philosophy of leadership. This is often referred to or described as the path to both professional and personal fulfilment (Johnson, 2002), it is purported to create more cooperative, flexible, and creative leaders. Johnson claims that Taoist leadership qualities are highly desirable for a decentralized, rapidly changing work environment. A leader, which is following this approach, is said to experience a sense of equilibrium in the midst of the chaos, which is commonplace in many western organisations, it is best expounded in the following excerpt: The more you embody these [Taoist] teachings, the more the scattered parts of your life fall into place and become a seamless whole; work seems effortless; your heart opens by itself to all the people in your life; you have time for everything worthwhile; your mind becomes empty, transparent, serene; you embrace sorrow as much as joy, failure as much as success; you unthinkingly act with integrity and compassion; and you find that you have come to trust life completely. (Autry Mitchell, 1998, p. xviii) The Taoist leadership approach to leadership, places a great deal emphasis on the inner calm and balance, which should be maintained by creating a low profile, and leading mostly by example and allowing followers to take ownership (Johnson, 2002). With the select examples illustrated above namely that of Afro-American, Hispanic and Taoist leadership it obvious that there is a whole range of core values and skills to choose from in order to create a leader who can be borne out of diversity. It will be important to equip such a leaders in organisations today with the training and skills to adapt to the ever-changing contexts in which organisations now operate. But diversity itself is not only confined to ethnic classes, it also includes in its definition the member of the other gender, the female. Women in the Leadership Arena – The Glass Ceiling There is such a phenomena known as the â€Å"glass ceiling†. The glass ceiling is, according to Chaffins, Fuqua Jr., Forbes and Cangemi (2002) a term coined in the early 1980s to describe the invisible barrier with which women came in contact when working up the corporate ladder. This form of discrimination has been depicted as a barrier so subtle that it is transparent, yet so strong that it prevents women and minorities from moving up in the management hierarchy Sexual discrimination often keeps most women out of senior managerial positions; this creates the stereotypical image in the general psyche of society that men are more stable than women in terms of intellect, emotion, and in terms of achievement with the resultant effect that men are also seen as being more assertive than females. This creates a major obstacle for women who aspire to achieve a senior managerial position are the presence of these stereotypical constraints imposed upon them by society, the family, and women themselves (Crampton, 2002). In order to overcome these obstacles, women (who have successfully climbed the management ladder) have found it a necessity to acquire the courage, the skills, and willpower in order to overcome the male-established norms and environmental climate. While policy making and also placement is largely in the hands of males (Crampton, 2002), there are still recommended tactics for women to develop in order to survive the rigors of the male-dominated workplace. It is by capturing of all the aforementioned traits and skills found in minority groups in many organisations and by making use of the rich cache of resources and qualities to compliment the traditional ‘successful’ white male leader that will make organisations better equipped to deal with the world today. It will be essential to adopt an approach, which includes many facets from different leadership styles from those of different ethnic and gender backgrounds rather than relying on the traditional narrow focus organisations currently utilised by organisations. It will then be possible for organizations to continue to thrive in an increasingly competitive space for talented individuals. Chapter Three Literature Review In this chapter I will focus on four key sections. Firstly, I will explore the historical and social context of the development of diversity in organisations. Secondly, we will attempt to examine the rationale for the organisation wanting to have a diverse work force and leadership. Thirdly we will look at the various leadership models contained in the literature and fourthly review the issues that are specific to leaders from different ethnic and gender backgrounds in their struggle to raise their profile and attain senior leadership positions. Table 3.1 highlights the key themes within the literature and the main points that are discussed in each section. 3.1 Historical and Social context The early years The 1960s Civil Rights to work place The 1970s Affirmative action The 1980s Backlash The 1990s Bottom line 3.2 Rationale for diverse organisations Economic rationale Social rationale Business case Benefits to a diverse workforce and leadership for organisations 3.3 Leadership models Traits model of leadership Behavioural model of leadership Situational model of leadership Transactional vs. transformational leadership discussion 3.4 Diversity issues in leadership Leadership styles of women The glass ceiling Racial dynamics in leadership Organisational culture Table 3.1 Key themes within the literature 3.1 The Historical and Social Context In this section I will focus on the evolution of leadership diversification in work environments from the early years up to the most recent time. This section discusses the various changes that standard norms have undergone in relation to labor and management. The changes that are cited in this section mainly evolve around the beginning of the participation of women and ethnical minorities in the work force, role of women in organizational management and other issues related to a diverse labor management. Diversity in the workplace and the management has long been an issue debated among work organizations. In the United States, for instance, race has been a profound determinant of one’s political rights, one’s locations in the labor market, one’s access to medical care and even one’s sense of identity. Most importantly, race is one of the major bases of domination in its society and a major means through which the division of labor occurs in organisations (Nkomo, 1992, p. 488, drawing on the work of Omi and Winant, 1986; Reich, 1981). Gender is also a basis for stratification in organizations and work (Tang and Smith, 1996). In some research studies, it has been observed that the impact of race on organizations is somewhat more profound than gender, at least in the case of white women. Researchers believed that this may be because the social distance between White women and men is less than that of White men and ethnic or racial minorities. The racial separation evident in housing, education and church affiliation limits the opportunities for minorities to develop non-work social ties with White men (Massey Denton, 1993; Wilson, 1996). The degree of separation between White men and women is lesser. Hence, White women seem likely to have greater opportunity for non-work social ties and the work related benefits one may derive from such ties. As an overview, about 37.3% of adult women in 1960 were in the workplace while 83.3% are adult males. By 1987, the number of working males has decreased to 78% (Schor, 1991). In 1990, the percentage of working women had increased by 45%. At this time, approximately one-half of all black workers, 45% of all white workers, and 40% of all Hispanic workers were women. In the U.S. statistics report, an average 16-year-old male can expect 39 years of working in the labor force, while a typical female of the same age, can expect 30 years of labor force involvement (U.S. Department of Labor, 1990). 3.1.1 The early years Before cultural diversity has been willingly integrated by various organisations, the early years had witnessed this concept shunned by other business management. In fact, in a published work of Peter Drucker (1968), he did not even mention dealing with cultural diversity in his seminal work. He addressed the topic of the manager of tomorrow and stressed that American managers, more than ever, would have to be of impeccable personal integrity and would have to shoulder the social responsibility of keeping the opportunity open to rise from the bottom according to ability and performance. Implicitly, Drucker advised managers to disregard cultural background and instead focus on individual qualities. While this message remain relevant, it lack any global appeal and fails to recognize that there might be special management challenges in an increasingly multi-cultural business environment. In the early times, men and women received different signals about what was expected of them. To summarize a subject that many experts have explored in depth, women have been expected to be wives, mothers, community volunteers, teachers and nurses. In all these roles, they are supposed to be cooperative, supportive, understanding, gentle and service-providers to others. They are to

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul :: essays research papers

Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul is the first of seven editions of the Chicken Soupseries. It is loved and admired by everyone that reads it. It has become a popular book all over the world. The author, are various people-was a struggling single mother when she started the Harry Potter series. She spent time in a cafà © in England to write the books. She did a fabulous job, she has been the recipient several awards for the series, and the first book will be transformed into a movie, which should be released in November of 2001. I thoroughly enjoyed reading Harry Potter, and I plan on reading the rest of them. From what I have read in just the first book I am sure that I will enjoy all the rest. The author has a very creative way of writing that is easy enough to understand, but also involved so that the reader isn’t bored stiff. This is partially why I feel that it has had such great success. Another big reason for its success is because it can be read and enjoyed by all ages. If you are young, you can relate to the first years; if you are older you can think back and it brings out the child in you. This magnificent story is about an eleven year old boy who has been deprived of practically everything all his life. Harry Potter lived in a cupboard under the stairs with his â€Å"muggle† relatives. Muggle refers to humans who lack any sort of mystical power. His Uncle Vernon and Aunt Petunia treated him very poorly because they refused to accept him for whom he is: a very famous child with great potential as a wizard amongst the magical world. As he grew up he never got anything of his own, even on special occasions. He received his spoiled cousin Dudley’s old clothes, which were all too big for Harry. At school Harry was bullied around, at home he never got a full dinner, and his birthdays were often forgotten. Needless to say, he lived a very depressing life.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Fortunately things changed. Harry received an envelope in the mail, but Uncle Vernon did not allow him to read it. Another letter came; once again Harry was not allowed to read it. More and more letters came, it was apparent to Harry that someone was trying to contact him and would not stop until he got the message.

Friday, July 19, 2019

John Steinbeck Essay -- essays research papers

John Steinbeck John Steinbeck was a famous American author who wrote from the 1920 to the 1940. Steinbeck was constantly moving across the country trying to succeed as a writer. John Steinbeck lived a life of constant up and downs, successes and failures before he landed on his feet and became a famous author. John Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California on February 27, 1902. He was the only son and the third child of John Ernst Steinbeck and Olive Hamilton. Steinbeck’s father owned comfortable Victorian house in Salinas. John’s father managed the Sperry Flour Mill. Things were pretty good for the Steinbeck, they were settled in a nice home they did not have to many financial problems, but then economic difficulties forced John’s father dismissal from the mill. Steinbeck’s father deiced to open a feed and grain store and go into business himself. The store struggled to survive and eventually failed completely. A close friend of John’s father got him a job as an account for the Spreckles Sugar Company. "Although he had a job, John’s father was extremely devastated by the lose of his business"(Stephen) "Encouraged by his parents John began to develop a love literature"(Morrow). At his ninth birthday John received a copy of the book Morte d’Arthur. This was the first book John ever owned. He later said it was a great influence upon his life. During his years at Salinas High School, John excelled in English. At...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Violence On Television Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The issue of television violence and its influence on children’s behavior troubles me. Television violence seems to be becoming abundant and violence seems to be increasing. This may be a dangerous form of entertainment, especially when young children become involved. The majority of television programs viewed by children contain large amounts of violence and inappropriate material. Children’s vulnerability poses as the main problem due to desensitization. Psychologists’ studies report that children become immune to television violence and adopt the behavior as a way of problem solving. Other people argue and say that television can not be blamed for the increase of violence among our society. They believe the increase comes from a lack of discipline and the large amounts of violence children view in their environments. Others feel that a large number of parents use television as a babysitter and do not spend enough quality time with their chi ldren. Children then begin to learn negative behavioral manners and begin idolizing inappropriate characters. ? I am uncertain about this issue and its effects on the way children behave. Is television teaching children violent behavior and leading them to become violent adults?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When children view substantial amounts of violence, I believe the possibility of desensitization becomes probable. Does desensitizing cause children to accept violent behavior as normal and aid them to mature to be violent adults? A study done by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry reported that television does increase aggressiveness in children’s behavior.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The majority of violence viewed by children contains a substantial amount of unrealistic violence. This type of violence commonly found in cartoons causes a considerable amount of concern. For example, when a character smacks another on the head with a hammer and the other character subdues no injuries from the hit. Children fail to see the consequences and imitate what they have seen. Thirty years of studies have documented that by the time a child reaches the age of 18 they will have seen 40,000 pretend murders and 200,000 dramatized acts of violence. (Report done by ABC news) Psychiatrists believe children view the behavior as normal and use it as a way of problem solving and... ... behavior. The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect reported that each year at least 350,000 teenagers and children have been victims of abuse, and the abuser averages to be thirty-two years of age. The violence increase occurs because of the abusive environments children grow up in. They become accustomed to this behavior, and they repeat this behavior when they become adults   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Children do watch a lot of television and too much can be a problem. I found that by being aware of the programs your children watch, talking to your children about the violence they see, and not using television as a babysitter can reduce the amount of influence television may inflict. Parents also need to spend time with their children and use other means of entertainment to amuse children. Parents can read, do puzzles, or find a sport that interests their child. Through my research I found television does pose as a major influence among children and does cause them demonstrate violent behavior. Television holds some responsibility to the increase of violence among our society, but the problem can be addressed by monitoring and limiting children’s viewing habits.